MENU PLANNING & HEALTHY NUTRITION
How to do Menu Planning in Diabetes?
Menu planning in diabetes provides guidance to a person on how much and how often s/he should eat which type of food during main meals and at snack time. Healthy eating plan should be in line with the person’s living standards and dietary habits. A proper eating plan has positive effects on blood sugar, blood pressue and cholesterol levels. Moreover, menu planning is also helpful on occasions where a person wants to lose weight or maintain his/her existing weight.
People with diabetes should eat foods that comply with the medications they take and insulin levels and their physical activity.
This may initially seem very complicated but with the help of your doctor and your dietitian, your healthy and appropriate eating plan will be organized. As long as you follow these rules, you’ll prevent heart disease, cancer, hypertension, kidney, etc.
A variety of ways is used to create menu planning in diabetes, such as food pyramid, change lists, plate measurements and carbohydrate counting. Each is a method preferred in individual specific cases. But one of them is definitely right for you.
What is a Healthy Diet?
A healthy diet should include all kinds of food groups: fruits and vegetables, grains, meat and meat products, dairy products, legumes. There isn’t only one quality, healthy food. Therefore, including various foods in the menu and observing the servings are important. It’s not appropriate to eat a specific food. Make sure that the foods you choose are rich in vitamins and minerals and have high nutritional quality...
Tips for Choosing Healthy Food
• Consume vegetables and fruits to a larger extent.
• Opt for products made of whole wheat flour. Opt for cracked wheat pilaf and wholemeal pasta, instead of rice and pasta.
• Consume legumes at least once a week.
• Consume fish 2-3 times a week.
• Often opt for white meat instead of red meat.
• Make sure that foods such as milk, cheese, yogurt are semi-skimmed or skimmed.
• Drink plenty of water, and check that other beverages that you consume are sugar-free or diet.
• Avoid using saturated fat in meals. Instead, opt for vegetable oil. Fats are rich in calories and are not recommended in diets.
• Avoid sugary foods, chips, cookies, pastry, donuts during snack time.
You can keep your weight by eating healthy proper food and manage to keep
your sugar levels in the normal range.
• Drink at least 8-10 glasses of water a day.
• Besides diet, do not ignore physical activity.
Diabetes Food Pyramid divides foods into 6 groups. Here, the bottom large section in our diet is comprised of grain group. This means grains are very important for our diet. The narrowest area at the top of the pyramid is comprised of sugary, fatty foods and alcohol. This group should be consumed little. Sugary foods are not recommended for people with diabetes.
Carbohydrates are divided into 3 groups:
* Starch and starchy foods
* Fibrous foods
Wheat, corn, peas, potatoes, legumes, barley, rye.
Grain group is divided into subgroups, milled cereals and whole grain. Grain consists of 3 parts: bran, seed and endosperm. Bran is the outermost layer of the grain, which is rich in fiber, vitamin B and minerals. The next part is the seed, which contains essential fatty acids and vitamin E. Endosperm is the soft innermost medium part, and it means whole grain, that the essence of which was not removed.
If you opt for whole grains, you’ll receive all vitamins and minerals from these three sections. In addition, fiber gives you the feeling of fullness for a long time and because of its low glycemic index, it prevents the rapid increase of blood sugar.
Sugar has a variety of names. Table sugar, tea sugar, brown sugar, honey, etc.
The chemical name of table sugar is sucrose. Fruit sugar is known as fructose, and the sugar in milk as lactose. Any foods containing the nutrients in this group, which we call simple sugars, are not recommended for patients with diabetes. When sugary foods are ingested, blood sugar increases very fast. Therefore, sugar is not recommended for people unless they develop a sudden hypoglycaemic coma. Moreover, sugar is high in calories.
Animal products contain no fiber (Milk, eggs, cheese, meat, fish, etc.)
Fiber constitutes indigestible parts of plants. Fruits and vegetables, whole grains, legumes contain fiber. Fiber foods avoid constipation and balance the rate of blood sugar. Fiber contains important vitamins and minerals.
(A change contains 15 g of carbohydrates and 1 g of protein).
Wholemeal diet biscuits 3
White beans 4 table spoons
Chickpeas 4 table spoons
Green lentils 4 table spoons
Kidney beans 4 table spoons
Burghul salad 3 table spoons
All vegetables are preferred for their low fat and calorie content. Vegetables are rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Spinach, broccoli, cauliflower, brussel sprouts, carrots, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, kale, sorrel, endive, etc.
(A vegetable change contains 6 gr of carbohydrates and 1 gr of protein)
1 small sized V of a glass
4 medium sized 10 medium sized
2 medium sized 15 leaves
5-6 leaves 1 small sized
5 medium sized 1 medium sized 3-4 medium sized 1 medium sized
1 small sized % medium sized 4 table spoons 4 table spoons
4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 1 medium sized V of a glass 1 medium sized 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 4 table spoons 1 medium sized
Alcohol causes hypoglycemia. One should measure their blood sugar before drinking alcohol. When one has drunk alcohol, they should check their blood sugar before going to bed, and if their blood sugar is low, they should eat something to increase blood sugar.
Alcohol should not be drunk to an empty stomach. One should eat something while drinking. Alcohol mixes with blood rapidly. It can be measured in your blood 5 minutes after drinking. It reaches peak level in 30-90 minutes.
WHAT IS THE GLYCEMIC INDEX?
The “GLYCEMIC INDEX” is the blood sugar increasing rate of foods. The higher the glycemic index of a food, the higher your blood sugar will be after you eat it.
Candy and confectionery Jams and marmalades Molasses, honey Chocolate Ready fruit juices Cakes and sweets Soft drinks